|Amendment in the Nature of a Substitute offered
by Rep. Lamar Smith (R-TX)
to HR 3482.
Date: February 26, 2002.
Disposition: This an amendment in the nature of a substitute was offered at the House Crime Subcommittee's markup session of February 26. It was amended by an amendment offered by Rep. Sheila Lee (D-TX). Then, this amendment in the nature of a substitute, as amended, was approved by a unanimous voice vote.
Source: The Office of Rep. Smith kindly provided Tech Law Journal with a PDF version of this amendment.
AMENDMENT IN THE NATURE OF A SUBSTITUTE TO H.R. 3482 OFFERED BY MR. SMITH OF TEXAS
Strike all after the enacting clause and insert the following:
SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.
This Act may be cited as the ‘‘Cyber Security Enhancement Act of 2002’’.
TITLE I—COMPUTER CRIME
SEC. 101. AMENDMENT OF SENTENCING GUIDELINES RELATING TO CERTAIN COMPUTER CRIMES.
The United States Sentencing Commission shall amend the Federal sentencing guidelines and, if appropriate, promulgate guidelines or policy statements or amend existing policy statements to address—
(1) the potential and actual loss resulting from an offense under section 1030 of title 18, United States Code;
(2) the level of sophistication and planning involved in the offense;
(3) the growing incidence of such offenses and the need to provide an effective deterrent against them;
(4) whether or not the offense was committed for purposes of commercial advantage or private financial benefit;
(5) whether or not the defendant acted with malicious intent to cause harm in committing the offense;
(6) the extent to which the offense violated the privacy rights of individuals harmed by the offense;
(7) whether the offense involved a computer used by the Government in furtherance of national defense, national security, or the administration of justice; and
(8) any other factor the Commission considers appropriate.
SEC. 102. EMERGENCY DISCLOSURE EXCEPTION.
Section 2702(b) of title 18, United States Code, is amended—
(1) by striking ‘‘or’’ at the end of paragraph (5);
(2) by striking subparagraph (C) of paragraph (6); and
(3) in paragraph (6), by striking ‘‘or’’ at the end of subparagraph (B) and inserting ‘‘or’’ at the end of subparagraph (A);
(4) by striking the period at the end of paragraph (6) and inserting ‘‘; or’’; and
(5) by inserting after paragraph (6) the following:
‘‘(7) to a governmental entity, if the provider, in good faith, believes that an emergency involving danger of death or serious physical injury to any person requires disclosure of the information without delay.’’.
SEC. 103. GOOD FAITH EXCEPTION.
Section 2520(d)(3) of title 18, United States Code, is amended by inserting ‘‘or 2511(2)(i)’’ after ‘‘2511(3)’’.
SEC. 104. NATIONAL INFRASTRUCTURE PROTECTION CENTER.
(a) IN GENERAL.—The Attorney General shall establish and maintain a National Infrastructure Protection Center (hereinafter in this section referred to as the ‘‘Center’’) to serve as a national focal point for threat assessment, warning, investigation, and response to attacks on the Nation’s critical infrastructure for both physical and cyber sources.
(b) AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.—There are authorized to be appropriated for fiscal year 2003 to carry out this section, $125,000,000.
SEC. 105. INTERNET ADVERTISING OF ILLEGAL DEVICES.
Section 2512(1)(c) of title 18, United States Code, is amended—
(1) by inserting ‘‘or disseminates by electronic means’’ after ‘‘or other publication’’;
(2) by inserting ‘‘knowing the content of the advertisement and’’ before ‘‘knowing or having reason to know’’;
(3) by inserting ‘‘or transmitted’’ after ‘‘transported’’; and
(4) by inserting ‘‘or communication’’ after ‘‘foreign commerce’’.
SEC. 106. STRENGTHENING PENALTIES.
Section 1030(c) of title 18, United States Code, is amended—
(1) by striking ‘‘and’’ at the end of paragraph (3);
(2) in each of subparagraphs (A) and (C) of paragraph (4), by inserting ‘‘except as provided in paragraph (5),’’ before ‘‘a fine under this title’’;
(3) by striking the period at the end of paragraph (4)(C) and inserting ‘‘; and’’; and
(4) by adding at the end the following:
‘‘(5)(A) if the offender knowingly or recklessly causes or attempts to cause serious bodily injury from conduct in violation of subsection (a)(5)(A)(i), a fine under this title or imprisonment for not more than 20 years, or both; and
‘‘(B) if the offender knowingly or recklessly causes or attempts to cause death from conduct in violation of subsection (a)(5)(A)(i), a fine under this title or imprisonment for any term of years or for life, or both.’’.
SEC. 107. PROVIDER ASSISTANCE.
(a) SECTION 2703.—
(1) Section 2703(e) of title 18, United States Code, is amended by inserting ‘‘, statutory authorization’’ after ‘‘subpoena’’.
(2) Section 2703(f) of title 18, United States Code, is amended by adding at the end the following:
‘‘(3) REMEDIES.—If a provider of wire or electronic communication services or a remote computing service intentionally fails to comply with a request under this subsection, the requesting governmental entity may obtain appropriate relief in a civil action, in addition to any other remedy or cause of action that entity may have.’’.
(b) SECTION 2511.—Section 2511(2)(a)(ii) of title 18, United States Code, is amended by inserting ‘‘, statutory authorization,’’ after ‘‘court order’’ the last place it appears.
(c) SECTION 2706.—
(1) Section 2706(a) of title 18, United States Code, is amended by inserting ‘‘requesting or’’ after ‘‘entity’’ the first place it appears.
(2) Section 2706(b) of title 18, United States Code, is amended by inserting ‘‘assembling or’’ after ‘‘person or entity’’.
SEC. 108. EMERGENCIES.
Section 3125(a)(1) of title 18, United States Code, is amended—
(1) by striking ‘‘or’’ at the end of subparagraph (a);
(2) by striking the comma at the end of subparagraph (b) and inserting a semicolon; and
(3) by adding at the end the following:
‘‘(C) an immediate threat to a national security interest; or
‘‘(D) an ongoing attack on a protected computer that constitutes a crime punishable by a term of imprisonment greater than one year;’’.
SEC. 109. PROTECTING PRIVACY.
(a) SECTION 2511.—Section 2511(4) of title 18, United States Code, is amended—
(1) in paragraph (a), by striking ‘‘paragraph (b) of this subsection or’’;
(2) by striking paragraph (b); and
(3) by redesignating paragraph (c) as paragraph (b).
(b) SECTION 2701.—Section 2701(b) of title 18, United States Code, is amended—
(1) in paragraph (1), by inserting ‘‘, or in furtherance of any criminal or tortious act in violation of the Constitution or laws of the United States or any State’’ after ‘‘commercial gain’’;
(2) in paragraph (1)(A), by striking ‘‘one year’’ and inserting ‘‘5 years’’;
(3) in paragraph (1)(B), by striking ‘‘two years’’ and inserting ‘‘10 years’’; and
(4) so that paragraph (2) reads as follows:
‘‘(2) in any other case—
‘‘(A) a fine under this title or imprisonment for not more than one year or both, in the case of a first offense under this paragraph; and
‘‘(B) a fine under this title or imprisonment for not more than 5 years, or both, in the case of an offense under this subparagraph that occurs after a conviction of another offense under this section.’’.
TITLE II—OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
SEC. 201. ESTABLISHMENT OF OFFICE; DIRECTOR.
(1) IN GENERAL.—There is hereby established within the Department of Justice an Office of Science and Technology (hereinafter in this title referred to as the ‘‘Office’’).
(2) AUTHORITY.—The Office shall be under the general authority of the Assistant Attorney General, Office of Justice Programs, and shall be independent of the National Institute of Justice.
(b) DIRECTOR.—The Office shall be headed by a Director, who shall be an individual appointed based on approval by the Office of Personnel Management of the executive qualifications of the individual.
SEC. 202. MISSION OF OFFICE; DUTIES.
(a) MISSION.—The mission of the Office shall be—
(1) to serve as the national focal point for work on law enforcement technology; and
(2) to carry out programs that, through the provision of equipment, training, and technical assistance, improve the safety and effectiveness of law enforcement technology and improve access to such technology by Federal, State, and local law enforcement agencies.
(b) DUTIES.—In carrying out its mission, the Office shall have the following duties:
(1) To provide recommendations and advice to the Attorney General.
(2) To establish and maintain advisory groups (which shall be exempt from the provisions of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App.)) to assess the law enforcement technology needs of Federal, State, and local law enforcement agencies.
(3) To establish and maintain performance standards in accordance with the National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995 (Public Law 104–113) for, and test and evaluate law enforcement technologies that may be used by, Federal, State, and local law enforcement agencies.
(4) To establish and maintain a program to certify, validate, and mark or otherwise recognize law enforcement technology products that conform to standards used by the Office in accordance with the National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995 (Public Law 104–113), which may, in the discretion of the Office, allow for supplier declaration of conformity with such standards.
(5) To work with other entities within the Department of Justice, other Federal agencies, and the executive office of the President to establish a co-ordinated Federal approach on issues related to law enforcement technology.
(6) To carry out research, development, testing, and evaluation in fields that would improve the safety, effectiveness, and efficiency of law enforcement technologies used by Federal, State, and local law enforcement agencies, including, but not limited to—
(A) weapons capable of preventing use by unauthorized persons, including personalized guns;
(B) protective apparel;
(C) bullet-resistant and explosion-resistant glass;
(D) monitoring systems and alarm systems capable of providing precise location information;
(E) wire and wireless interoperable communication technologies;
(F) tools and techniques that facilitate investigative and forensic work, including computer forensics;
(G) equipment for particular use in counterterrorism, including devices and technologies to disable terrorist devices;
(H) guides to assist State and local law enforcement agencies;
(I) DNA identification technologies; and
(J) tools and techniques that facilitate investigations of computer crime.
(7) To administer a program of research, development, testing, and demonstration to improve the interoperability of voice and data public safety communications.
(8) To serve on the Technical Support Working Group of the Department of Defense, and on other relevant interagency panels, as requested.
(9) To develop, and disseminate to State and local law enforcement agencies, technical assistance and training materials for law enforcement personnel, including prosecutors.
(10) To operate the regional National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Centers and, to the extent necessary, establish additional centers through a competitive process.
(11) To administer a program of acquisition, research, development, and dissemination of advanced investigative analysis and forensic tools to assist State and local law enforcement agencies in combating cybercrime.
(12) To support research fellowships in support of its mission.
(13) To serve as a clearinghouse for information on law enforcement technologies.
(14) To represent the United States and State and local law enforcement agencies, as requested, in international activities concerning law enforcement technology.
(15) To enter into contracts and cooperative agreements and provide grants, which may require in-kind or cash matches from the recipient, as necessary to carry out its mission.
(16) To carry out other duties assigned by the Attorney General to accomplish the mission of the Office.
(c) COMPETITION REQUIRED.—Except as otherwise expressly provided by law, all research and development carried out by or through the Office shall be carried out on a competitive basis.
(d) INFORMATION FROM FEDERAL AGENCIES.—Federal agencies shall, upon request from the Office and in accordance with Federal law, provide the Office with any data, reports, or other information requested, unless compliance with such request is otherwise prohibited by law.
(e) PUBLICATIONS.—Decisions concerning publications issued by the Office shall rest solely with the Director of the Office.
(f) TRANSFER OF FUNDS.—The Office may transfer funds to other Federal agencies or provide funding to nonFederal entities through grants, cooperative agreements, or contracts to carry out its duties under this section.
(g) ANNUAL REPORT.—The Director of the Office shall include with the budget justification materials submitted to Congress in support of the Department of Justice budget for each fiscal year (as submitted with the budget of the President under section 1105(a) of title 31, United States Code) a report on the activities of the Office. Each such report shall include the following:
(1) For the period of 5 fiscal years beginning with the fiscal year for which the budget is submitted—
(A) the Director’s assessment of the needs of Federal, State, and local law enforcement agencies for assistance with respect to law enforcement technology and other matters consistent with the mission of the Office; and
(B) a strategic plan for meeting such needs of such law enforcement agencies.
(2) For the fiscal year preceding the fiscal year for which such budget is submitted, a description of the activities carried out by the Office and an evaluation of the extent to which those activities successfully meet the needs assessed under paragraph (1)(A) in previous reports.
SEC. 203. DEFINITION OF LAW ENFORCEMENT TECHNOLOGY.
For the purposes of this title, the term ‘‘law enforcement technology’’ includes investigative and forensic technologies, corrections technologies, and technologies that support the judicial process.
SEC. 204. ABOLISHMENT OF OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OF NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF JUSTICE; TRANSFER OF FUNCTIONS.
(a) TRANSFERS FROM OFFICE WITHIN NIJ.—The Office of Science and Technology of the National Institute of Justice is hereby abolished, and all functions and activities performed immediately before the date of the enactment of this Act by the Office of Science and Technology of the National Institute of Justice are hereby transferred to the Office.
(b) AUTHORITY TO TRANSFER ADDITIONAL FUNCTIONS.—The Attorney General may transfer to the Office any other program or activity of the Department of Justice that the Attorney General, in consultation with the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate and the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives, determines to be consistent with the mission of the Office.
(c) TRANSFER OF FUNDS.—
(1) IN GENERAL.—Any balance of appropriations that the Attorney General determines is available and needed to finance or discharge a function, power, or duty of the Office or a program or activity that is transferred to the Office shall be transferred to the Office and used for any purpose for which those appropriations were originally available. Balances of appropriations so transferred shall—
(A) be credited to any applicable appropriation account of the Office; or
(B) be credited to a new account that may be established on the books of the Department of the Treasury;
and shall be merged with the funds already credited to that account and accounted for as one fund.
(2) LIMITATIONS.—Balances of appropriations credited to an account under paragraph (1)(A) are subject only to such limitations as are specifically applicable to that account. Balances of appropriations credited to an account under paragraph (1)(B) are subject only to such limitations as are applicable to the appropriations from which they are transferred.
(d) TRANSFER OF PERSONNEL AND ASSETS.—With respect to any function, power, or duty, or any program or activity, that is transferred to the Office, those employees and assets of the element of the Department of Justice from which the transfer is made that the Attorney General determines are needed to perform that function, power, or duty, or for that program or activity, as the case may be, shall be transferred to the Office.
(e) REPORT ON IMPLEMENTATION.—Not later than 1 year after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Attorney General shall submit to the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate and the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives a report on the implementation of this title. The report shall—
(1) identify each transfer carried out pursuant to subsection (b);
(2) provide an accounting of the amounts and sources of funding available to the Office to carry out its mission under existing authorizations and appropriations, and set forth the future funding needs of the Office;
(3) include such other information and recommendations as the Attorney General considers appropriate.
SEC. 205. NATIONAL LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CORRECTIONS TECHNOLOGY CENTERS.
(a) IN GENERAL.—The Director of the Office shall operate and support National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Centers (hereinafter in this section referred to as ‘‘Centers’’) and, to the extent necessary, establish new centers through a merit-based, competitive process.
(b) PURPOSE OF CENTERS.—The purpose of the Centers shall be to—
(1) support research and development of law enforcement technology;
(2) support the transfer and implementation of technology;
(3) assist in the development and dissemination of guidelines and technological standards; and
(4) provide technology assistance, information, and support for law enforcement, corrections, and criminal justice purposes.
(c) ANNUAL MEETING.—Each year, the Director shall convene a meeting of the Centers in order to foster collaboration and communication between Center participants.
(d) REPORT.—Not later than 12 months after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Director shall transmit to the Congress a report assessing the effectiveness of the existing system of Centers and identify the number of Centers necessary to meet the technology needs of Federal, State, and local law enforcement in the United States.
SEC. 206. COORDINATION WITH OTHER ENTITIES WITHIN DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE.
Section 102 of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 (42
U.S.C. 3712) is amended in sub-section (a)(5) by inserting ‘‘coordinate
and’’ before ‘‘provide’’.