|PeopleSoft Board Rejects Oracle's $24 Per
11/10. PeopleSoft announced in a
release that "its Board of Directors voted unanimously to recommend that
PeopleSoft stockholders reject Oracle Corporation's ... amended unsolicited
offer to purchase all PeopleSoft shares for $24.00 per share", and that the
Board "recommends that PeopleSoft stockholders not tender their shares to
In addition, PeopleSoft Ch/CEO Dave Duffield stated in the same release that
"The Board concluded that PeopleSoft is worth substantially more than Oracle's
On November 1, 2004, Oracle made an
offer of $24 per share, up from its previous offer of $21 per share. Oracle's
CEO Larry Ellison and Chairman Jeff Henley wrote in a letter to PeopleSoft on
November 1. They stated that "For almost 17 months the
owners of PeopleSoft -- the stockholders -- have been denied the opportunity to
consider our offer, while we have fought our way through a variety of regulatory
obstacles actively promoted by the PeopleSoft Board of Directors. Those
obstacles no longer exist. Last week the European Commission voted to clear
Oracle's bid for PeopleSoft. This decision, coupled with the decision of the
U.S. Department of Justice not to appeal Judge Walker's decision, means that now
the PeopleSoft Board of Directors is the only obstacle to stockholder
consideration of our offer."
Ellison and Henley concluded that "Although our $24
price is final and non-negotiable, we are ready to negotiate the other terms of
a merger agreement with you". See, Oracle
release and letter.
|WTO Panel Instructs Congress to Amend Wire
Act to Legalize Internet Gambling
11/10. A Dispute Resolution Panel of the World
Trade Organization (WTO) released its
pages in PDF] on Antigua and Barbuda's complaint that U.S. laws affecting
internet gambling violate U.S. treaty obligations. The panel held that various federal
laws, including the Wire Act, and various state laws, violate the General
Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). The Office of the USTR called the report
The report, which is titled "United States -- Measures
Affecting the Cross-Border Supply of Gambling and Betting Services: Report of
the Panel", finds that these laws violate the U.S.'s market
access commitments for gambling and betting services.
The report therefore directs the U.S. Congress and various
states to amend their statutes to legalize the placing of bets in the U.S., and
international money transfers and payments, that facilitate internet gambling
provided in Antigua and Barbuda.
Antigua and Barbuda is a nation comprised of two tiny sparsely populated
islands located in the Caribbean, east southeast of Puerto Rico, at 17 03 N, 61
48 W. The economy is primarily service based, with tourism accounting for more
than half of the GDP. Antigua and Barbuda is also a "drug money laundering
center" (The World Factbook, CIA, 2003, at page 20), and an internet
based gambling center.
Richard Mills, the spokesman for the Office of
the U.S. Trade Representative (USTR), stated in a
"This panel report is deeply flawed", and that "We will vigorously appeal this deeply flawed report to the WTO Appellate
Body and remain confident in the basis for reversing this panel report."
He elaborated that "In 1995,
the Clinton Administration clearly intended to exclude gambling from U.S.
services commitments when the Uruguay Round negotiations were completed.
Throughout our history, the United States has had restrictions on gambling,
like many other countries. Given these restrictions, it defies common sense
that the United States would make a commitment to let international gambling
operate within our borders. Antigua is arguing for a result that was never
imagined, much less bargained for, in the Uruguay Round negotiations."
He added that "contrary to what the panel asserted, there is no obligation
for WTO members to conduct international consultations before taking action
to protect public morals and public order and enforce criminal laws. WTO
members were already restricting gambling and other activities affecting
public morals and public order long before they created the WTO. The WTO
agreements confirmed the rights of Members to protect public morals and
public order. Nothing in any WTO agreement requires Members to seek approval
from their trading partners before exercising those rights. Indeed, on these
grounds alone, this panel report should be of great concern to every single
|FCC to Collect More Data
with Form 477
11/9. The Federal Communications Commission
(FCC) adopted, but did not release, a Report and Order regarding modifications
to and extension of its Form 477 local competition and broadband data gathering
program at its November 9, 2004 meeting.
Data collected in this form is the basis of the FCC's reports that measure
broadband deployment in the U.S. The FCC issued a
release [PDF] that states that the FCC "will
require all facilities-based carriers to report, regardless of their size".
Previously, small facilities based broadband providers (those with less than 250
lines in a state) were exempted.
The release also states that "broadband providers
will be required to provide more detailed information on the speed and nature of
their service. The rules also establish broadband-over-power line as a separate
category in order to track deployment more closely. To better assess broadband
availability, incumbent telephone and cable companies will be asked to report
the extent to which their DSL and cable modem service is available where they
they provide phone or cable television service."
The FCC release is otherwise silent on Form 477's
definition of broadband. It is currently minimal -- 200 kilobits per second, in
one direction. However, Commissioner Michael
Copps discussed this in his
He wrote that "move away from our passé 200 kbps benchmark for broadband. I have
advocated for some time now that we update this standard. By dividing broadband
services into speed tiers, we will have data more in line with the speeds
available to end-users in our industrialized counterparts. This should help us
better understand how we stack up against other countries, particularly the
dozen which are ahead of ours in broadband penetration."
Another issue not addressed by the FCC release is the FCC's practice
withholding state level data for confidentiality purposes. That is, if there are
three or fewer providers in a state, the FCC does not publish the state level
data that it has collected. Hence, the tables that set out state level data in
the FCC's periodic reports on broadband deployment are full of asterisks. This
is particularly the case for smaller and more rural states with few providers.
This practice maintains confidentiality, but frustrates policy analysis.
Michael Powell wrote in a
[PDF] that "The information collected in our Form 477 program is a critical aid
in demonstrating that first-generation broadband is being widely deployed
throughout the nation."
Jonathan Adelstein also wrote a
statement [PDF]. See also, the FCC's
web page titled "Form 477
Reporting Requirements & Deployment Data". This item is FCC 04-266 in WC Docket No.
|Reaction to the FCC's
11/10. The Federal Communications Commission
(FCC) adopted, but did not release, a Memorandum
Opinion and Order at its November 10 meeting that addresses Vonage
Holdings Corporation's Petition for Declaratory Ruling regarding its DigitalVoice
service in the state of Minnesota. The FCC found that Vonage's voice over
internet protocol (VOIP) service, which is named DigitalVoice, is an interstate
service, and that Minnesota cannot regulate as it had proposed in a September
This article provides a review of reactions to this order. See also, story
titled "FCC Adopts Order on Vonage's VOIP
Petition" in TLJ Daily E-Mail Alert No. 1,015, November 10, 2004.
Vonage CEO Jeffrey Citron stated in a
that "This forward-thinking
decision from the FCC assures that competition from VoIP is here to stay. Now we
can focus our resources exclusively on building an even better service --
rolling out E-911 for all our subscribers, innovating new features and new
devices for VoIP, and expanding aggressively around the globe. Because the FCC
has acknowledged the reality of the Internet -- which knows no state boundaries
and no borders -- more people will enjoy the benefits of Internet phone
Michael Gallagher (at right), Administrator
of the National
Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA), stated in a
release that this order "is a big step forward for advanced
communications in the United States. Voice communications over the Net have been
cleared for takeoff. The FCC has acted to keep the Internet -- an inherently
global network -- unburdened by costly state regulation. As a result, a rich
variety of IP services benefitting U.S. consumers and businesses will be
accelerated. Today's vote is going to keep the U.S. on the cutting edge of
Gary Shapiro, P/CEO of the Consumer Electronics
Association, stated in a
that "It is clear that advancement of VoIP services is a key element in driving
consumer demand and adoption of broadband. There is a unique synergy between
VoIP and broadband that allows each to be used as a purchase incentive for the
other. Today's action by the Commission is a strong step toward regulatory
clarity, which is needed to advance VoIP services that will provide enormous
benefits to consumers and the economy. We commend the FCC's leadership in taking
action to avoid a patchwork of state regulations that would stifle the
advancement of this new form of communication."
Cisco Systems stated in a release
that "This FCC decision represents an important step in the process of enabling
the growth of VoIP without unnecessary government regulation. The prospect that
50 different states could have had 50 different sets of regulation for VoIP
service would have been crippling to the birth of this important new technology.
Cisco is pleased that Chairman Powell and the FCC Commissioners have recognized
that VoIP and a myriad of related new services portend a wealth of low cost,
compelling consumer services which know no jurisdictional boundaries. This
ruling allows for an environment that fosters innovation, which is vital to the
growth of new consumer services and the technology industry's continued
Steve Largent, P/CEO of the Cellular
Telecommunications and Internet Association (CTIA), which now also calls itself the
Wireless Association, stated in a
that "We applaud the FCC for recognizing the fundamental interstate and
international characteristics of IP-enabled services. Much like wireless, one of the
primary benefits of IP-enabled service is its ability to deliver data to a consumer at
anytime, in any place, from any location with broadband access. CTIA strongly agrees
that such services should be free to develop under a single, unified regulatory framework,
unencumbered by conflicting state public utility regulations. Furthermore, the competitive
and innovative forces driving IP-enabled service to the marketplace will
-- like wireless service -- provide consumers with more choices and lower prices."
"The FCC’s action today recognizes the harm that a patchwork of state utility
regulations can pose to the development and proliferation of inherently interstate
services such as VoIP and wireless. By establishing a uniform, nationwide regulatory
framework, IP-enabled services will avoid the costly inefficiencies that accompany a
patchwork of inconsistent and varying regulatory schemes. This ruling is of
great significance to the consumer seeking these new and innovative services in
the most cost-effective manner possible", said Largent.
Robert Sachs, P/CEO of the National Cable
& Telecommunications Association (NCTA), stated in a
that "By establishing a national framework for the regulation of Voice over
Internet Protocol (VoIP) services, the FCC has taken a significant step towards
promoting competition in enhanced voice services. As facilities-based VoIP
providers, cable companies offer consumers sustainable, high quality voice
services. We believe the Commission's decision will further incent companies to
invest in this exciting new technology."
Walter McCormick, P/CEO of U.S.
Telecommunications Association (USTA), stated in a
that this order "is a necessary step to ensure that innovative, borderless
communications are not hindered by outdated, conflicting regulatory schemes from
fifty-one different local jurisdictions. While this move acknowledges the
tremendous changes in communications, in future proceedings the Commission must
ensure that market-based competition thrives in an environment where all
technologies compete under the same rules. The Commission must also set a
competitive framework that encourages investment in the infrastructure and
shares the responsibility for maintaining the networks.”
Jonathan Banks of BellSouth stated
in a release that "The FCC took a critical step towards encouraging the deployment of
IP-enabled services, such as VoIP, by recognizing the inherent interstate nature
of such services. The future of these and new, innovative IP-enabled services
depends critically on investment in next-generation network facilities. The FCC
must act to ensure that the investment these networks require will not be
hampered by regulation."
"We encourage the commission to complete in short order the work it has
started here by establishing a similar regime for all IP-enabled networks and
services in its 'IP-enabled' rulemaking proceeding. Such a decision would go a
long way toward eliminating uncertainty and allowing quicker introduction of new
and more efficient services."
James Smith of SBC Communications stated in
release that "Consumers will clearly benefit from a national policy framework that
eliminates regulatory roadblocks to the rollout of new generation networks and
services. Today's ruling by the FCC appears to be another positive step forward
in developing a national policy that ensures consumers will receive innovative
and low-priced IP-based services. These innovative IP-based services could be
delayed or stymied altogether if 50 states are permitted to saddle these
emerging technologies with a hodgepodge of inconsistent and conflicting
11/10. The Internet Corporation for Assigned
Names and Numbers (ICANN) announced that it approved the
Asian Domain Name Dispute Resolution
Centre (ADNDRC) and the National Arbitration
Forum (NAF) as independent dispute resolution providers for the
Dispute Resolution Policy (TDRP). The ICANN stated that this policy is part
Inter-Registrar Transfer Policy, which will go into effect on November 12,
2004. The ADNDRC is a joint undertaking between the
China International Economic and Trade Arbitration
Commission (CIETAC) and the Hong Kong International
Arbitration Centre (HKIAC). See, ICANN
11/10. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
and the NTIA announced that FCC Chairman
Michael Powell and NTIA Administrator
Gallagher "met formally to plan and coordinate the efforts of the FCC and the National
Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) on spectrum policy
issues. The meeting included senior spectrum policy teams from both
organizations." See, FCC
11/10. The Department of Homeland Security
(DHS) announced that it has "lowered the threat level for the financial services
sector in New York City, Northern New Jersey and Washington, D.C. from ‘high’ or
Code Orange to ‘elevated’ or Code Yellow. Since the threat level was raised on
August 1, 2004 state and local leaders as well as the private sector have worked
hard to strengthen security in and around specific buildings and locations as
well as throughout the financial services sector." See, DHS
11/10. Peter Allgeier, Deputy U.S. Trade Representative, gave a
speech to the United States Asia Pacific Council in Washington DC. Among the
many topics that he discussed were tariffs and non-tariff barriers by industry
sector, including the information technology sector. He said that "We, the
United States, and many counties in the Asia Pacific area believe that a formula
should be complemented by a sectoral initiative that would be basically tariff
elimination in key sectors. And we want to work with the countries of Asia Pacific on
that. Among the sectors that there’s been interest in this region are chemicals, gems
and jewelry, capital goods and, of course, information technology goods". He added
that "In addition to the formula and the sectoral initiatives, there are non-tariff
barriers. Obviously you can eliminate tariffs and still find that you can’t get into a
market because of non-tariff barriers. Again, this is an area where there is a
lot of opportunity for cooperation and work together with Asia and Pacific. ...
we’ve done it ... to a certain degree, large degree, in information technology."
|Bush Picks Alberto Gonzales to be Next
11/10. President Bush announced that he will nominate Alberto Gonzales to be
the next Attorney General. He will replace John Ashcroft.
Gonzales (at right), is currently White House Counsel. Before
that, he served on the Supreme Court of Texas. Before that, he was Secretary of State
of Texas, and General Counsel in the office of then Governor George Bush.
President Bush stated at a White House event that "His sharp intellect and
sound judgment have helped shape our policies in the war on terror -- policies
designed to protect the security of all Americans, while protecting the rights
of all Americans. As the top legal official on the White House staff, he has led
a superb team of lawyers and has upheld the highest standards of government
Sen. Orrin Hatch
(R-UT), the outgoing Chairman of the
Senate Judiciary Committee, stated in a release that "President Bush made an
excellent choice by selecting Judge Alberto Gonzales as the next Attorney
General of the United States. I have had the pleasure of working closely with
Judge Gonzales throughout President Bush's administration. Judge Gonzales'
record in Texas and the White House are praise-worthy. His legal, military,
government and professional experience has proven to be a great asset to our
country during very trying times. I am confident that he will be promptly
confirmed and make a superb Attorney General."
|More People and Appointments
11/10. Randy Barrett joined Warren Communications News. He will write for
Communications Daily, and write for, and manage, Washington Internet Daily. He
previously worked for Interactive Week, and as a free lance writer. He replaces
Pat Ross, who became VP for Communications and External Affairs at the
Progress & Freedom Foundation (PFF).
|Washington Tech Calendar
New items are highlighted in red.
|Thursday, November 11
The House is in recess until November 16, 2004. See,
Republican Whip Notice.
The Senate is in recess until November 16, 2004.
Veterans Day. The Federal Communications
Commission (FCC) and other federal offices will be closed. See, Office of
Personnel Management's (OPM) list
of federal holidays.
12:30 PM. Dan Glickman, Ch/CEO of the
Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA),
will give a luncheon address titled "The Motion Picture Industry in the 21st
Century -- A New Golden Age?". He will discuss the digital delivery of
content, and internet piracy of movies. For reservations, call 202
662-7501. Location: National Press Club,
529 14th St. NW, 13th Floor.
|Friday, November 12
9:30 AM. The U.S. Court of Appeals
(DCCir) will hear oral argument in AT&T Corp v. FCC, No. 03-1431.
This is a petition for review of a final order of the FCC regarding AT&T's tarriffs
and resellers 800 service plans. See, FCC
brief [37 pages in PDF].
Judges Ginsburg, Tatel and Roberts will preside. Location: Prettyman Courthouse, 333
Constitution Ave., NW.
9:30 - 11:30 PM. The
American Enterprise Institute (AEI) will host a
program titled "Success Taxes, Entrepreneurial Entry, and Innovation". The speakers
will be William Gentry
(Williams College), William Randolph (Department of the
Kevin Hassett (AEI), and
Eric Engen (AEI).
Gentry and Glenn
Hubbard (Columbia University) are the authors of a
paper [30 pages in PDF] with the same title as the program. They find that
"while the level of the marginal tax rate has a
negative effect in entrepreneurial entry, the progressivity of the tax also
discourages entrepreneurship". See,
notice. Location: AEI, 12th floor,
1150 17th St., NW.
Public Knowledge (PK) will host
an event that its describes as a "a press conference ... to discuss copyright
legislation in the upcoming lame duck session". The participants will be Gigi
Sohn (PK), Gary Shapiro (Consumer Electronics
Association), Ed Black (Computer and Communications Industry Association),
James Burger (TiVo), and Sarah Deutsch (Verizon).
Location: PK, Suite 650, 1875 Connecticut Ave., NW, at Connecticut and T
Deadline to submit reply comments to the
Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in
response to its notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to examine the proper
number of end user common line charges that carriers may assess upon customers
that obtain derived channel T-1 service where the customer provides the
terminating channelization equipment and upon customers that obtain Primary Rate
Interface (PRI) Integrated Service Digital Network (ISDN) service. This
NPRM is FCC 04-174 in WC Docket No. 04-259 and RM-10603. See,
in the Federal Register, August 13, 2004, Vol. 69, No. 156, at Pages 50141 -
Deadline for licensees of all site specific licenses operating under part
22, Paging and Radiotelephone Service with "CD" radio service code and all
site specific licenses operating in the 929-930 MHz band on exclusive
private carrier paging channels with "GS" radio service to respond to the
Federal Communications Commission's (FCC)
Wireless Telecommunications Bureau's (WTB) audit letter. See, Public
Notice DA 04-3050, and
notice in the Federal Register, October 12, 2004, Vol. 69, No. 196, at
Deadline to submit comments to the Department of Commerce's
Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS/BXA)
in response to its notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) regarding amendments
to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR). The BIS proposes to amend its
EAR to revise the definition of knowledge to incorporate a reasonable person
standard, and to replace the phrase "high probability" with "more likely than
not". The BIS also proposes to revise the red flags guidance, and provide a
safe harbor from liability arising from knowledge under that definition. See,
notice in the Federal Register, October 13, 2004, Vol. 69, No. 197, at
Pages 60829 - 60836.
|Monday, November 15
Court will begin a recess. It will return on Monday, November 29, 2004. See,
List [14 pages in PDF] at page 14.
6:00 - 9:15 PM. The DC Bar Association
will host a continuing legal education (CLE) program titled "How to Litigate
an Intellectual Property Case Series, Part 2: How to Litigate a Trademark Case".
The speakers will be Shauna Wertheim (Roberts Abokhair & Mardula) and Steven Hollman
(Hogan & Hartson). See,
Prices vary from $70 to $115. For more information, call 202 626-3488. Location: D.C.
Bar Conference Center, B-1 Level, 1250 H Street, NW.
12:15 - 1:30 PM. The Federal
Communications Bar Association's (FCBA) Professional Responsibility Committee will
host a brown bag lunch. This is an organizational meeting. Location: Paul Hastings,
1299 Pennsylvania Ave., NW, 10th Floor.
Extended deadline to reply submit comments to the
Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in response
Notice of Inquiry (NOI) [15 pages in PDF] regarding "issues relating to the
presentation of violent programming on television and its impact on children." This
NOI is FCC 04-175 in MB Docket No. 04-261. See, story titled "FCC Issues NOI on
Violent TV Programming" in TLJ Daily E-Mail Alert No. 950, August 2, 2004. See also,
Order [PDF] extending the deadlines.
Deadline to submit reply comments to the Federal
Communications Commission (FCC) in response to its notice of proposed rulemaking
(NPRM) regarding "Internet Protocol (IP) Relay and Video Relay Service (VRS),
including the appropriate cost recovery methodology for VRS, possible mechanisms to
determine which IP Relay and VRS calls are intrastate and which are interstate for
purposes of reimbursement, whether IP Rely and VRS should become mandatory TRS services,
whether IP Relay and VRS should be required to be offered 7 days a week, 24 hours a day,
and whether, when, and how we should apply the speed of answer
rule to the provision of VRS." See,
notice in the Federal Register, September 1, 2004, Vol. 69, No. 169, at Pages 53382
- 53385. The FCC adopted this NPRM on June 10, 2004, and released it on June 30, 2004.
It is FCC 04-134 in CG Docket No. 03-123. Comments are due by October 18, 2004.
Deadline to submit comments for, or requests to participate in, the
Federal Trade Commission's (FTC) workshop titled
"Peer to Peer File-Sharing Technology: Consumer Protection and Competition
Issues". See, FTC
notice [13 pages
in PDF] to be published in the Federal Register.
|Tuesday, November 16
The House will meet at 2:00 PM. See,
Republican Whip Notice.
The Senate will meet at 12:00 NOON.
9:30 AM. The
Senate Judiciary Committee will
hold a hearing titled "Judicial Nominations". Location: Room 226, Dirksen
9:30 AM - 1:00 PM. The DC Bar
Association will host a continuing legal education (CLE) program titled
"Essential Checklist for Electronic Discovery". The speakers will be
Kenneth Withers (Federal Judicial Center), Robert Eisenberg (CoreFacts), Magistrate John
Facciola (U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia), Virginia Llewellyn
(LexisNexis Applied Discovery), Jonathan Redgrave (Jones Day). See,
Prices vary from $70 to $115. For more information, call 202 626-3488. Location: D.C.
Bar Conference Center, B-1 Level, 1250 H St., NW.
10:00 - 11:30 AM. The Federal Communications
Commission's (FCC) Media Security and Reliability Council will meet. The
event will be webcast by the FCC. The public may submit written comments. See,
notice in the Federal Register, July 15, 2004, Vol. 69, No. 135, at Page
42439. Location: FCC, 445 12th St. SW, Room TW-C305 (Commission Meeting Room).
11:00 AM. The Federal
Communications Commission's (FCC) International
Bureau will hold an event titled "Media briefing on the 10th Anniversary
of the FCC’s International Bureau". Bureau Chief Don Abelson will speak. RSVP
to Jacki Ponti at
Jacki.Ponti@fcc.gov or Meribeth
McCarrick at Meribeth.Mccarrick@fcc.gov.
Location: FCC, 445 12th Street, SW, Room TW A-402/A-442.
12:00 NOON. The Federal
Communications Bar Association's (FCBA) Executive Committee will meet.
Location: Wiley Rein & Fielding, 1776 K St., NW.
|Thursday, November 18
9:00 AM - 3:00 PM. The Department of Commerce's (DOC)
Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) will host an
event titled "U.S. India High Technology Cooperation Group Dialogue on
Defense Technology, Data Privacy, and Export Licensing". See,
registration form, and
agenda. Location: DOC 1401 Constitution Ave., NW.
9:30 AM. The U.S. Court of Appeals
(DCCir) will hear oral argument in USTA v. FCC, No. 03-1414. This is
petition for review of a final order of the FCC pertaining to number portability.
See, brief [47 pages
in PDF] of the FCC. Judges Sentelle, Randolph and Garland will preside. Location:
Courtroom 20, Prettyman Courthouse, 333 Constitution Ave., NW.
9:30 AM. The U.S. Court of Appeals
(DCCir) will hear oral argument in Ctrl TX Tele Coop v. FCC, No.
03-1405. Judges Sentelle, Randolph and Garland will preside. Location: Courtroom 20,
Prettyman Courthouse, 333 Constitution Ave., NW.
9:30 AM. The U.S. Court of Appeals
(DCCir) will hear oral argument in Covad Communications Co. v. Bell Atlantic
Corp., No. 02-7057. Judges Ginsburg, Rogers and Tatel will preside. Location:
Prettyman Courthouse, 333 Constitution Ave., NW.
11:00 AM. The Federal Communications Bar
Association's (FCBA) Legislation Committee will host an event. The speaker will
be Gregg Rothschild (Democratic Counsel, House Commerce Committee). He will
speak on legislative issues. RSVP to Helene Marshall at
Wiley Rein & Fielding, 1776 K St., NW.
Communications Bar Association's (FCBA) will host a breakfast. The speaker will be
Jeff Carlisle, Chief of the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC)
Wireline Competition Bureau.
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